Vaccinations for rabbits
Regardless of whether you start a rabbit as a pet or breed for meat, you must take care of the health of your pets. An important condition for your wards to be healthy is timely vaccination. From what diseases the eared are vaccinated and how to do it correctly, we will consider in this article.
Why vaccinate rabbits
By their nature, rabbits, unfortunately, are not long-livers (with the exception of some breeds). In addition to the fact that these animals are very fragile and delicate, they are also susceptible to a host of diseases, both non-infectious and infectious.
The latter are often almost impossible to cure and problematic to diagnose in time, since rabbits, for evolutionary reasons, tend to hide the symptoms of the disease (in the wild, a sick animal became prey of a predator). In order to extend the life of animals and not to lose the whole herd due to the rapidly spreading epidemic, you need to take care of the vaccination issue.
Did you know?The oldest long-lived rabbit is Floppy, who lived in England for almost 19 years, from 1964 to 1983.
What are vaccinated against, timing and scheme
A rabbit can become infected with a serious disease even under very good conditions, as its cousins, small rodents, ectoparasites (mosquitoes, fleas, ticks) act as carriers. Consider the most dangerous infections and how to properly vaccinate animals against these diseases.
Rabies is an incurable central nervous system viral disease that, fortunately, is rare in rabbits because of its content in cells. The disease is transmitted through the saliva of a sick animal (through a bite), so if during a walk in the yard the rabbit was attacked by a wild dog (cat / fox / bat), you need to immediately isolate it and observe the condition.Typically, the incubation period is about 2 weeks. Then there are appetite disorders, auto-mutation, cyclic transitions from inhibited behavior to abnormally active. During the spread of the virus, the following symptoms appear:
- aggression towards brothers and people;
- psychomotor agitation;
- refusal of water and food;
- paralysis of the swallowing muscles, increased salivation;
- Vaccinate animals aged 2–2.5 months.
- Repeat vaccination once a year.
Important! It is not recommended to vaccinate rabbits that are naturally fed (by mother’s milk), since rabbit rabbit antibodies reduce the antigenic response from vaccination. At the same time, if there is such an opportunity, rabbits are advised to keep on suction for up to 3 months to strengthen immunity. Usually this recommendation is not respected, the animals are removed from the suction in 1 month, hence the timing of vaccinations from 1.5 months.
Pasteurellosis is characterized by pathological processes in the blood (septicemia) and extravasation (blood flow) to the intestinal mucosa and respiratory tract. The causative agent is usually found in the secretions of sick animals. Distinguish between acute and super acute forms. With the latter, the animal dies without any external signs. The acute form is manifested by such symptoms:
- fever (up to 41 °);
- runny nose, sneezing, shortness of breath;
- heart palpitations;
- redness of the mucous membranes;
- impaired appetite.
- The first vaccination is given after 1.5 months.
- Revaccination every six months to a year.
- For newborns who are at risk for pasteurellosis, there is serum given every week.
Important! The vaccine is stored only in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 to + 5 ° C. Before using the drug, be sure to read the instructions.
Viral hemorrhagic disease always proceeds rapidly, characterized by lesions of the venous walls and, as a result, multiple internal hemorrhages. Externally, the disease is expressed in:
- respiratory depression;
- loss of appetite;
- bleeding from the mouth, nose, anus;
Mortality in HBV is 80–90%. With a super-acute form, the rabbit dies without having found any special symptoms before.The vaccination schedule includes the following steps:
- Vaccination in 1.5 months.
- Then the next two for 14 days.
- Revaccination every six months.
Myxomatosis is a formidable viral disease with 100% death. Infection can occur both through sick rabbits and through insect bites.
When the edematous form develops:
- runny nose
- edema in the head and reproductive organs, filled with fluid;
- mucosal cyanosis;
With a nodular form on the head and ears, neoplasms are formed in the form of nodules merging with each other.
In the case of a benign course of this form, a favorable prognosis is possible. But you should not rely on it, since the treatment for myxomatosis has not yet been developed, and there is no other way to protect it except vaccinate animals.
Usually the following vaccination procedure is followed:
- The first vaccine is given when the rabbit is 28 days old (however, with a body weight of less than 0.5 kg, vaccination is delayed).
- Revaccination at 4 months.
- Further revaccinations after 9-12 months (six months for adverse areas).
Helminthiasis in rabbits does not have an acute course, but is nonetheless dangerous and can lead to intestinal obstruction and other gastrointestinal diseases. Worms absorb beneficial substances from the animal’s body, and, as a result, the rabbit loses weight, losing its meat productivity.
In addition, infection with helminths weakens the effect of vaccination, therefore it is better to solder rabbits with prophylactic drugs twice a year (in spring and autumn) according to the scheme: 3 days of the preparation - a break of 10 days - 3 days of the preparation. It is necessary to use the most soft and safe means, for example, Albendazole, Dirofen.
What vaccines are
Veterinary pharmaceuticals offer a variety of vaccines, and the owner of the rabbit can choose what it is best for him to vaccinate animals. By the number of active components are distinguished:
- monovaccines (with one antigen);
- complex (associated, multivalent) vaccines with several antigens in the composition.
According to the degree of preservation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine, there are:
- living (able to multiply rapidly in the body, stimulating the formation of immunity);
- inactivated (with "killed" viral particles that cannot self-reproduce in the body).
One of the most commonly used (on domestic farms) monovaccines:
Complex (associated) vaccine
After applying the monovaccine, you must observe an interval of 2 weeks before setting the next vaccine. This is not always convenient, especially if the animals are at risk for the disease. Associated vaccines that protect against several viruses at once differ favorably from monovaccines in such characteristics:
- no need to wait 14 days before the next vaccination;
- less trauma to animals from additional injections;
Did you know?If you let the rabbits breed freely, then after 90 years the number of these representatives of the family of hare-like will reach the number of square meters on Earth.
The most popular vaccines that combine the antigens of myxomatosis and HBV are:
In addition to the price, low in comparison with imported complex preparations, this vaccine is notable for its convenience, as it is immediately ready for use, without the need to dilute the suspension with a solvent. For one rabbit, 0.5 ml of the vaccine is enough.
Vaccination at home
Spring is the time of year when rabbits are best planted. Air temperature rises, pathogenic bacteria are activated, but at the same time there is still no dominance of mosquitoes - possible carriers of infection.
It is possible to vaccinate animals in the veterinary service, but this entails additional costs, and if there are a lot of rabbits in the farm, it is simply connected with the inconvenience of delivery. Most often, farmers give the animals vaccinations on their own. To do this, you must follow a number of rules.
Only clinically healthy animals are vaccinated. 10 days before vaccination, it is necessary to carry out anthelmintic prophylaxis. It is also necessary to prepare a sufficient number of syringes (preferably a separate one for each rabbit or at least one for 5 individuals), a needleless injector (for subcutaneous administration, usually used on large farms), alcohol, antiseptics to treat the injection site, antihistamines (to remove possible post-vaccination allergic complications).
First of all, you need to firmly fix the rabbit so that it does not break out (for this you need an assistant). The injection site is disinfected. Then a vaccine is drawn into the syringe, air is released and an injection is made. You can enter the drug in two ways:
- Subcutaneously. For an injection in the withers area, you need to slightly pull the skin, spread the hair and introduce the needle parallel to the body. After stretching the syringe, you need to massage the injection site a little to allow the medicine to disperse.
- Intramuscularly This is a more reliable way. An injection is made into the thigh, the needle is inserted perpendicular to its surface, to a depth of several millimeters to a centimeter, depending on the size of the rabbit.
Can pregnant rabbits be vaccinated?
In general, there are no contraindications for vaccination of puppy rabbits, especially since animals have reduced immunity during this period and are more susceptible to diseases. If an unfavorable infectious situation is observed on the farm and in the surrounding area, then rabbits must be vaccinated.
Otherwise, you can wait until the rabbits are deposited, since it is not recommended to vaccinate nursing animals (the potent components of the vaccines enter the body of newborns with milk). Ideally, rabbits should be vaccinated before pregnancy.
Among rabbits, especially those kept on farms, viruses are transmitted in a variety of ways: through feed, soil, droppings, bites of blood-sucking insects, when they are next to a sick animal.
Many diseases are untreatable and fatal. In order to prevent an epidemic and preserve the livestock, it is necessary to vaccinate animals with high-quality vaccines on time.