Why does the rabbit have red urine: causes and treatment
Any rabbit breeder knows well that these fur-bearing animals are distinguished not only by valuable fur and diet meat, but also by rather weak immunity. The rabbit's body is sensitive to the slightest mistake made by the farmer, and therefore the task of the zealous owner is to timely identify emerging health problems of the eared stock.
One of the bright markers to understand that something is wrong with the pet is the color change of his urine. How, guided by such an indicator, to determine what kind of ailment struck the animal and, accordingly, how to provide the animal with quick and adequate help, is described in detail in this review.
What urine should rabbits have
It would seem that everything is simple: if you know what the rabbit's urine should be from the point of view of the norm, it is easy to notice a deviation and start to sound the alarm. But that is precisely the problem that the normal color of urine for a rabbit is a very loose concept. The color of urine is influenced by many factors, but first of all it depends on the diet of the animal.In addition to the usual yellow liquid, the rabbit's bladder can secrete a substance of different intensity and transparency, from very light to dark brown and even brown. However, the owner has no reason to panic if:
- the animal feels well, eats with appetite, actively and cheerfully;
- urination does not cause difficulties in the animal, the frequency of discharge is always approximately the same;
- with standard feeding, the color of urine remains unchanged (if the change in the appearance of urine coincides with the introduction of a new feed into the diet, you just need to observe the animal and make sure there is or is no connection between these two events).
However, the owner should still be guided by the fact that with a normal and balanced diet, the rabbit most often urinates with a rather thick liquid, rather dark than light, and more likely brown than yellow.
Important! Most often, the color of feces in rabbits changes in the summer, when the animal receives a large amount of freshly cut grass. Forbs directly affect the hue of secretions, and in this case even exotic colors such as purple or dark red (beets, basil), bright orange (dandelion), etc. are considered the norm.
Why do rabbits have urine of a different color?
So, if the rabbit's urine has an unusual color - this does not mean at all that the animal needs to be urgently saved. Such a phenomenon can have a variety of explanations - both absolutely banal and very dangerous. The main task of a good rabbit breeder is to distinguish the former from the latter.So, a change in the color of bowel movements in fur animals can be caused by:
- high content of plant pigments in the feed (most likely);
- a specific reaction to the intake of certain medications, primarily antibiotics (a similar side effect must be indicated in the instructions for such medicines);
- stress (the ability of a fright or other emotional shock to change the shade of urine in rabbits is just an assumption of some veterinarians, but this possibility cannot be ruled out);
- overheating or heat stroke;
- violation of the water balance (with a lack of fluid in the body, the secretions become less plentiful and more concentrated, respectively, their color will change to a darker one).
In addition to all of the above, the cause of an uncharacteristic shade of rabbit feces is sometimes the presence of an inflammatory process or other disease.
Did you know? Water, which makes up more than 60% of the human body, is the main condition for our survival. If the fluid loss that occurs in our body constantly is not fully compensated in full, we may experience headache, fatigue, irritability, not understanding what is happening to us. Interestingly, one of the most striking signs of dehydration is precisely the discoloration of urine - from yellow and transparent it becomes brown and cloudy.
The presence of blood in the urine of any animal cannot be attributed to a normal state. The good news is that for rabbits this phenomenon is extremely rare. But there's a problem. With the naked eye, it is almost impossible to see bloody inclusions in the liquid excrement of the animal, which is why red urine always scares the owner of the animal so.
The presence of blood in the composition of urine has a scientific name - hematuria. At the same time, it is important to understand that hematuria is not a disease, but a symptom by which, guided by other signs characterizing the condition of the rabbit, the doctor can make a final diagnosis.Most often, hematuria characterizes the presence of internal bleeding in the animal's body, for example, due to:
- cystitis and other infectious diseases of the bladder;
- pathologies of the urethra (urinary tract);
- urolithiasis or other kidney problems;
- hypercalciuria (the presence of sand in the bladder);
- the presence of benign or malignant tumors in the kidneys, bladder, reproductive organs (for example, polyps in the bladder, uterine adenocarcinoma, genital cancer, etc.).
Blood in the urine of a sucral rabbit, along with bleeding from the vulva, in addition to the reasons listed above, may indicate an abortion (miscarriage).
In addition, in unsterilized females, this symptom sometimes manifests itself with an abnormal growth of the mucous layer lining the inner surface of the uterus - the so-called endometrial hyperplasia.
Did you know? Unambiguously establish the presence of blood in the feces is possible only by laboratory means. But experienced breeders are advised to conduct a simple test at home. After collecting some urine (you can use a wet litter, on which the animal has just urinated), you just need to drop it with a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The presence of blood in the "prototype" will cause a hissing reaction, in this case the animal should be shown to the veterinarian.
Red urine is perhaps the most common problem discussed on rabbit breeder forums. I must say that this description can mean a variety of shades of color, from pink to orange, burgundy, scarlet, dark brown or purple.Unlike the situation when there is blood in the rabbit urine, just the red color of the urine is not a cause for concern. Of course, starting a farmer can be very scary to see such a picture, but experienced breeders are well aware that this state of affairs is quite normal for a rabbit (note that people can overeat bright beetroot fluid when urinating, and this is not at all indicates a disease, so there is no reason for panic).
Important! Red urine in rabbits is not considered a medical symptom. Even if you continue to feed the animal with the same food, in the vast majority of cases, after a few days, the color of urine returns to normal.
Did you know? Rabbits are known for their fertility, but its scale is amazing. During the year, one female can produce up to three and a half dozen babies and even more. In one litter an average of ten rabbits is born, while in twelve months the rabbit can easily endure four to five pregnancies.
The orange color of urine in a rabbit is one of the modifications of red. In most cases, this effect occurs from staining of urine with a pigment that enters the body of the animal along with food. If an animal on the eve feasted on carrots or spinach - products rich in beta-carotene - the orange tint of secretions is quite natural.
A similar situation occurs when the animals are given needles of conifers or shrubs (spruce, pine, juniper) as rough food. Moreover, even the fact that a certain food seemed to eat the whole herd, and a change in the shade of urine appeared only in some individuals, is not cause for concern: such a reaction of the body is a very individual phenomenon.However, a saturated yellow or orange hue of urine can be caused by an increased content of substances such as urobilinogen or bilirubin in it, which, in turn, makes it possible to suspect abnormal liver function.
In any case, having found orange wet tracks on the litter, the farmer should be guided by his own instinct and be guided by other signs that indicate the physical condition of the pets.
Important! Symptoms of urolithiasis in rabbits are more likely to resemble cystitis - rapid, painful and scanty urination, while the external properties of urine do not change at all (blood in the urine is present only with a very severe form of the disease, and its dark color is generally not considered a hallmark of pathology).
The dark color of urine (as, in general, any other) in itself is not a cause for concern. Sometimes you have to hear that a similar effect occurs with urolithiasis and is accompanied by the presence of sediment in the liquid in the form of sand.
However, one should be skeptical of such statements and not only because it is practically impossible to see such an impurity in real conditions.
If the pet’s condition is normal, the anus and the urethra are clean, there are no symptoms of urinary dermatitis (primarily hair loss around the genitals), there is no reason for concern.
In most cases, a white opaque shade of urine in a rabbit indicates the presence of high calcium in the liquid. In itself, this phenomenon is not a symptom of the disease, however, the diet of the animal should still be adjusted to reduce the proportion of feed with a high content of this mineral (most rabbits get calcium from green grass).
The rabbit breeder also needs to know that the calcium level in the rabbit's body is always much higher than that of most other mammals (approximately 12.5–16 mg per deciliter compared to the “traditional” norm for humans and animals in the range of 8.5–10.5 )
Until recently, scientists believed that rabbit hypercalcemia was associated with nutritional characteristics, but later it turned out that the transfer of animals to a diet with a limited amount of calcium practically does not affect the above concentration.
Apparently, we are talking about the physiological characteristics of rabbits, so an excess of calcium in the urine for an animal can be considered one of the normal options.
Did you know? The presence of solid particles of salt in a person’s urine is a symptom of a disease called crystalluria. In this case, the liquid becomes cloudy and often contains bloody clots, which indicates the malfunction of internal organs and systems. The fact is that in normal people, calcium salts should be excreted through the intestines, and not through the bladder. For rabbits, crystalluria, by contrast, is the norm.
What to do and how to treat deviations
From the foregoing, it is clearly seen that in the vast majority of cases, no special reaction, and even more so treatment, does not require a change in the color of urine in a rabbit. All that the owner needs to do is to observe the animal and, having mobilized all its deductive abilities, confirm or exclude a real cause for concern.
One of the most characteristic signs of a rabbit's health problems, far more revealing than the color of urine, is the frequency and abundance of urination.The following symptoms indicate problems with urination:
- the animal strains the muscles very much at the moment of “minor need” coping;
- the animal sits for a long time with its tail held high, sometimes rising on its hind legs;
- urination occurs very often;
- during urination, very little fluid is released or only individual drops fall (if in doubt, it is enough to change the litter in the cell in the evening and carefully examine it in the morning for the presence and abundance of wet areas).
In any case, an accurate diagnosis is made only after a thorough examination of the animal (for example, ultrasound or radiography), as well as laboratory tests of blood and urine, culture, etc.
Important! Very many of the above diseases of the kidneys and the genitourinary system in the early stages do not change the color or texture of the urine, but are accompanied by obvious difficulties that the animal experiences when trying to urinate.
Drug treatment depends on the diagnosis. The following are possible options for such therapy for various pathologies.
|Sand in the bladder|
In principle, when it comes to one of the diseases described above, the only civilized way of helping a pet is with medication.However, with slight difficulties with urination and a slight change in the color of the excreted fluid, when the general condition of the animal clearly does not give reason to suspect that his life is at risk, you can try to solve the problem by folk remedies.
Medicinal herbs, which are most often used for diseases of the urogenital system in rabbits, are primarily:
- plantain (both fresh leaves and dry);
- dill (seeds).
Important! No traditional medicine can be discussed if the tests revealed blood in the rabbit's urine.
A decoction of these herbs is prepared in a standard way: the raw material is poured with boiling water, insisted, after which the finished drug should be soldered to the animal from a single syringe without a needle. So, for example, for 500 ml of water you need to take: plantain - six tablespoons, horsetail or tansy - one teaspoon, chamomile or dill - a tablespoon.In order for the treatment to be successful, and its results to be noticeable, until the signs of urination disorders disappear from the diet of the animal, it is necessary to exclude food rich in calcium and plant pigments, that is, juicy and green components (for some time you need to feed the rabbit only with rough food, hay and dry mixes). But the animal needs to drink during the treatment period, on the contrary, as much as possible.
To prevent the occurrence of problems with the bladder, kidneys, liver and reproductive organs of the rabbit, which can occur, inter alia, in the color change of his urine, simple rules must be followed:
- Properly feed the pet, do not give him products that are prohibited for consumption (few know that these include all cereals, on the basis of which most concentrated feeds are produced).
- Ensuring that the animal receives a sufficient amount of liquid and wet food (the myth that rabbits and other rodents get all the necessary water from the feed, and the drinker in their cage is not needed is a dangerous mistake), however, the lack of dry food is also unacceptable .
- Use good filters to clean the water that is given to the animal (the water should be not only clean, but also soft).
- Constantly supply the room where rabbits are kept with fresh and high-quality hay.
- Provide the animal with a sufficient amount of vitamins, primarily vitamin C.
- Avoid an overdose of calcium in the diet of the animal (although, if to speak objectively, the lack of this element for the rabbit is much worse than the excess).
- Protect the animal from drafts, overheating, hypothermia, stress and other adverse environmental factors.
- Regularly clean the cage; in the cold season, provide the animal with a warm, clean and dry litter.
- Timely vaccinate and deworm livestock.
- If the animal has already had problems with the kidneys or bladder, take a control urine test at least once a quarter.
- Closely monitor the health status of pets, identify deviations in time, and seek professional help in a timely manner.
As you can see, almost all changes in the color of urine in a rabbit (including bright red) may well be considered normal and not indicate that the animal is sick. Truly dangerous diseases of the kidneys, liver, and reproductive organs of the rabbit are very rarely accompanied by a change in the shade of urine, in any case, this symptom is never the only one.
That is why, having noticed such a deviation, the farmer or the owner of the decorative animal should not panic, but carefully observe the animal, analyze whether something has changed in the conditions of its keeping, and only if other disturbing symptoms show the animal to the veterinarian.