Construction of turkey poultry
To keep poultry, you can adapt your existing barn or build a house yourself. As in the case of the chicken coop, when building a turkey poultry, you need to make sure that the turkeys are comfortable and safe. This will provide good productive performance. The article gives detailed recommendations on how to build a turkey poultry with your own hands. By the way, there will be step-by-step instructions.
If you are thinking about what kind of barn is needed for turkey poultry, then it is better to build a new, fully adapted room. Turkeys need housing slightly different from the chicken coop. In the afternoon, they like to be outdoors, regardless of the weather. Therefore, adult birds can spend the whole day in the summer on pasture. Young people will need shelter: a lodging for the night with a roof and protection from predators.
What should be turkey poultry? The basic requirements are:
- have a sufficient area: about 1-1.9 sq. m for 1 turkey;
- optimal microclimate: winter temperatures - from -3 ° С to -5 ° С; summer - + 18-20 ° C, humidity - 60-70%;
- To maintain optimal performance, good ventilation, room insulation, and the absence of drafts are required;
- the location of all objects in the turkey turkey should be such that the birds are not injured (they can fly at night);
- to prolong daylight hours in winter, artificial lighting is equipped in the room;
- birds need to be provided with feeders, drinking bowls, nests and places for sleeping (roosts).
Where to place
Install turkey poultry on a dry site, with a distance to groundwater not less than 1 m. The area should be well-lit by the sun and have enough area for walking. Since the birds will walk a lot, the site should be removed from the tracks, crowded places and objects that can scare pets. Allocate more space for turkeys in advance, so that with an increase in livestock there is no problem with the lack of free space.
Important! Typically, turkeys walk on the ground, but in case of danger can fly small distances. Keep birds away from sources of noise and potential danger.
Turkey plan: drawing
When deciding how to build turkey poultry, keep in mind that the premises for placement of poultry when growing for meat and for keeping hens will vary. In the first case, a small room of a summer type is enough, in the second, a winter version is required.
To calculate the construction area, it is taken into account that 1-1.9 sq.m. are needed per 1 bird. area. The room is zoned, and it should have several separate zones, as well as a small vestibule, so that it would be easier for people to clean and carry out other measures for keeping birds. Height - no more than 1.7-2 m.The floor should be raised above the ground to a height of 20-25 cm to improve air exchange and maintain dryness in the room. The position of the window on the sunny side and the lighting during natural daylight will make the house ideal. The window is placed at a height of at least 1 m from the floor. Window size - 50 x 50 cm.
The roof can be gable or shed so that the snow does not linger and does not increase humidity inside the turkey poultry.The space between the roof and the ceiling can be used to store bedding materials.
Did you know? Maya Indians were the first to domesticate a turkey. In their mythology, it is closely connected with the god of rain, because before the weather starts to worry and scream.
The list of tools and materials
To build a warm turkey poultry it is recommended to use wood. It should not have defects: damage by bugs, cracks.
For the foundation you will need:
- formwork boards;
- material for sand and gravel cushion under the foundation;
- pegs for the foundation;
You will need materials for walls and roofs:
- material for walls (board, plates);
- insulation for walls;
- roof tile;
- pipes for supply and exhaust ventilation;
- metal corners;
- nails and screws.
Did you know? Turkeys are very aggressive during the mating season. Presumably, the attack of the turkey on a moving large object is just a desire to make the maximum impression on the female.
- saw on wood;
- drill / driver;
- Master OK.
Construction of turkey poultry
Turkey will be erected on a strip foundation. Choosing how to make the foundation: by sticking reinforced concrete blocks or pouring the foundation, consider your abilities in obtaining the necessary building materials. The strip foundation performs a supporting function: it creates a contour on which the walls will be installed, and also evenly redistributes the load from the walls.
The depth of its laying is not less than 0.5 m from the ground level. To create the foundation, they dig a trench to a depth of 0.5 m; then reinforced concrete prefabricated structures are installed in the ground or formwork is installed. At the end of the listed works, it is poured with concrete of grade M75 and higher.
The basis for the walls is the frame. To create it, supporting beams will be required. The sequence of construction of the frame box is as follows:
- first, load-bearing racks are installed in the corners of the structure and along the walls, not forgetting about future windows and doors;
- installation of window and door openings;
- the upper and lower timber strapping is performed;
- small swing openings are provided for birds to enter the aviary;
- on the pillars, the frame of the future roof is fixed.
Walling techniques include wood cladding and insulation. For covering use a board of any type. But it can also be building materials (for example, OSB-boards), which are obtained by compressing wood chips under high pressure using resins. Plates are moisture resistant, resistant to fungi and insects or rodents.
Did you know? The world's largest turkey farm is owned by Bernard Matthews (North Dakota). Here, about 1,000,000 turkeys are slaughtered for meat annually.
The sequence of erection of walls must be followed when erecting:
- boards or wood slabs are fixed to the supporting racks with self-tapping screws;
- the gaps between the boards are filled with foam;
- the walls are covered with insulation (the simplest is mineral wool, the canvas of which is attached with the help of battens and screws to the walls);
- mineral wool is covered with a board or the same plate material from above;
- the outside of the wall is painted with paint for two reasons: aesthetics of turkey poultry and additional protection against moisture.
Sex is an important component of turkey poultry. To improve the air exchange in the house and to prevent contact with moist and moist soil, the floor is raised to a height of at least 20 cm from the soil level. The design is made of smooth smooth boards:
- lags are installed on the wooden frame;
- floorboards are placed on them;
- cracks fill with sealant;
- laying on the floor for turkeys made of dry straw or hay.
To create a ceiling, you need to upholstery and insulate the roof.Creating a ceiling is as follows:
- the ceiling frame is covered with a board or plate material;
- air ducts are installed;
- it is covered with a heater (mineral wool);
- waterproofing is laid;
- the roof is covered with metal tile or slate.
Arrangement of turkey poultry
Perches, feeders, drinking bowls and nests are placed inside the turkey poultry. Before the installation of feeders and drinking bowls, lighting is installed. But the ventilation is mounted together with the ceiling and roof. If fan installation is provided, then it is performed at this stage. To prevent insects from entering the turkey poultry, the ventilation ducts are closed with a special mosquito net.
The grid is also installed on the windows, if provided. Since in the wild males and females live separately after the mating season, turkey poultry should be divided into 2 sections: one for turkeys, the other for turkeys with offspring.
If the birds are raised for meat, then the lighting will be almost around the clock. Intensity - 25 watts per 1 sq.m. Fluorescent lamps are installed so that the room is lit evenly. Height - 2 m from the floor.
- 1 day - around the clock;
- 2 day - time is reduced by 1 hour;
- from 3 to 14 days, the duration of lighting is reduced to 16 hours a day;
- a level of 16 hours lighting remains for the entire period of fattening (28 weeks).
The supply and exhaust ventilation system consists of 2 main pipes: supply and exhaust. The diameter of the pipe is about 250 mm. Since gases are heavy and light, exhaust openings are made in the walls almost at the floor level and at the height of the middle of the wall. Each hole should be equipped with a damper, which will block the access of air in severe frost.
The norm of the processed air is 4-6 cubic meters per hour per 1 kg of turkey weight. If a conventional exhaust system cannot cope with a six-time air change within an hour, it is advisable to install a fan to optimize the process.
Important! All electrical wiring is laid in special boxes at a height of at least 1.5 m (to prevent contact with moisture, birds or rodents).
Most birds tolerate temperature extremes and easily adapt to them. But turkeys are considered the most "inflexible" in this matter. Therefore, the air temperature will gradually change as the population increases:
- at the time of birth, the air temperature under the lamp (in the brooder) should not be lower than + 36 ° C, and in the room - not lower than + 28 ° C;
- at the age of 1 week - in a brooder + 34 ° С, indoors - + 26 ° С;
- for 2-week-old turkey poults - in a brooder + 28 ° С, indoors + 23 ° С;
- by the end of the first month in the room where they are kept, should be at least + 22 ° C. Further, the maintained temperature should not fall below + 17 ° C.
Since turkeys are large birds, at least 0.5 m of roost per 1 individual. The roosted area is in the form of a small ladder, where the farthest will be at the same time the highest. The design is placed where it is especially warm. The distance between 2 poles is at least 25 cm.
- the highest pole is 1.2 m;
- the lowest pole is 0.5 m.
Important! With hypothermia, the birds may not get sick, but their growth and development are suspended.
Nests equip at the rate of 1 pc. for 4-5 turkeys. Typical size - 40 x 70 x 60 cm. Height - at least 0.6 m from the floor. It is advisable that a small nut lead to the nest.
Drinking bowls and feeders
In the first days of life, the turkey’s beak is very soft. In order not to damage it, drinking bowls and feeders are made of soft materials. Starting from 2 weeks, you can install regular feeders.Feeders for adult birds can be made in the form of boxes, from pieces of plastic pipes or from other useful materials. The height of the feeder on the wall is 40 cm from the floor.
The drinker should be sufficient so that the chick can drink, but cannot get wet (this leads to diseases). For adult turkeys, drinking bowls are placed at neck level.
Arrangement for turkey poults
In the first week after birth, poultry are placed in a brooder. The lamp inside it will provide the desired air temperature and lighting. Sand litter is laid on the floor, soft feeders and a drinking bowl are placed. These devices should not be directly under the lamp, it is better to place them near the center. Litter should be changed regularly. From the second week, scalded sawdust can be used as bedding. They need to be changed at least 1 time per week. Density of placement of turkey poults - 5 pcs. on 1 sq.m.From 2 weeks of age, turkey poults can be walked during the day. To do this, you need a site that is protected from other birds and animals. Small perches are also prepared and set up for young animals. Height - 15 cm from floor level. The length depends on the size of the livestock, but 1 turkey should have at least 10 cm of width.
Insulation of turkey poultry for the winter
If turkey poultry was insulated during construction, then additional insulation is not necessary. If you adapted an ordinary barn for growing turkeys, then the walls and ceiling are insulated with mineral wool. Additional warming for birds creates a deep litter. Its height is 30 cm for adult birds and 10-15 cm for young animals. Such litter is changed 2 times a year.
Did you know? The food territory of wild turkey often exceeds 1000 acres (4 sq. Km), and the birds are well oriented on it.
The height of the aviary is about 2 m. It consists of several load-bearing columns and mesh sections-walls. The top of the enclosure is covered with a net for 2 reasons: to prevent turkeys from flying apart and to limit contact with predators and wild birds. According to the standards, 1 bird should have at least 1.5 square meters of walking area. Therefore, farmers often organize a free grazing zone for turkeys.The main task of walking is to ensure the supplement of the daily diet of the bird with seeds, green mass, bugs and worms. In a small area of closed walking, grass and other elements will be processed in a few days, and the structure will need to be moved to another place (which is not always convenient).
Recommendations for the construction of the quantity
The room for a large number of birds is usually divided into sections not inside the same building, but consists of several rooms, which separately contain young animals, laying hens. The norms of the area per 1 bird will not change. For very large farms, the cellular content of turkeys is relevant.
A herd of 100 goals will be kept in the premises all the time. Therefore, 1 bird should have at least 2.4 sq.m. The size of the room is 240 sq.m. The shape of the building is a very elongated rectangle.
For keeping 50 goals you need a turkey poultry measuring 120 sq.m. The room can be designed in the form of 2 sections with a range between them. The design will resemble the letter "P". A large herd can feed only on a site with well-drained soil. Therefore, plan the size of the walking area depending on the amount of food that birds can get from it.
When building a room for a small livestock, an area of about 48 sq.m. is required. The size of the walking area is at least 30 sq.m. Walking is placed next to the turkey poultry. If the farmer sows separate areas of alfalfa for turkeys, then the paddock is organized on such a site with periodic movement along it.
For a small group of birds of 10 goals, it is advisable to build a turkey poultry area of 24 sq.m. The size of the walking area is 15 sq.m.A walk is set next to the turkey turkey or they organize free movement of birds throughout the farm. When constructing a turkey turkey, take into account the peculiarities of your soil and climate so that the bird keeping is as productive as possible. Properly created housing conditions will save birds from diseases associated with high humidity and hypothermia.
A turkey poultry built in accordance with all the rules and other comfortable conditions will ensure a healthy livestock.